Reading Plus

Middle School Research

TITLE:

The Effect of Reading Plus on Student Achievement as Measured by the Smarter Balanced (SBAC) Assessment

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS:

Students who completed at least 80% of recommended Reading Plus assignments (100 lessons / 30 hours) achieved significantly larger gains on the SBAC ELA assessment in comparison to a group of demographically similar students who had minimal or no Reading Plus use (p < .001).

“Three times as many Reading Plus students advanced from SBAC ELA Level 2 (below standard) to Level 3 or 4 (meeting or exceeding the standard) than a comparison group of students.”

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TITLE:

The Impact of Reading Plus on Reading Proficiency Growth as Measured by the Smarter Balanced (SBAC) and InSight Assessments: 2015-2016 School Year

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS:

Students who completed at least 80 Reading Plus lessons were more likely to advance from not meeting to meeting the SBAC standard than students who did not engage in Reading Plus. This brief also discusses the strong alignment between the SBAC and InSight assessments.

“Students who engaged in more Reading Plus practice achieved larger gains on both the Smarter Balanced (SBAC) and InSight assessments.”

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TITLE:

Reading Motivation and Reading Success: A Two-Way Street

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS:

This report focuses on two key domains of motivation (reading interest and reading confidence) and how they relate to reading comprehension, efficiency, and overall reading proficiency. Across all grade groups (grades 2-5; 6-8; and 9-12), students who reported higher levels of interest and confidence also demonstrated significantly higher levels of reading comprehension and reading efficiency (p < .001). As well, increases in interest and confidence over the school year were larger in students who increased their reading proficiency to a greater extent.

“Reading motivation and reading success go hand-in-hand.”

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TITLE:

Reading Efficiency: The Gateway to Comprehension & Motivation

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS:

When reading is slow and arduous, comprehension and motivation suffer. Analyses of national data clearly showed that students who read more efficiently also had higher levels of comprehension and motivation. Across all grade groups (grades 2-5; 6-8; and 9-12), students in higher reading rate quartile groups always achieved significantly higher comprehension levels and reported significantly higher levels of reading interest and self-efficacy (p < .001).

“Reading efficiency gains together with improved reading comprehension contribute to significant reading proficiency growth. Reading efficiency is critically associated with continued enthusiasm for reading and perseverance throughout the high school years.”

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TITLE:

The Effect of Reading Plus® on Reading Proficiency Growth: National Results for the 2015-2016 School Year

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS:

Students who completed at least 100 Reading Plus lessons significantly increased their capacity to comprehend progressively more complex texts, developed their capacity to understand higher level vocabulary, and improved their reading efficiency. (p < .001). The results also showed that students developed more confidence and increased their interest in reading.

“Reading Plus practice improves students’ reading proficiency and motivation, which in turn increases the likelihood that they will use reading as a means to expand their knowledge, to be entertained, and to seek inspiration.”

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TITLE:

Reading Plus® Significantly Raises the Reading Achievement of Both Lower- and Higher-Performing Students

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS:

Across all grades, Reading Plus practice was associated with highly significant (p<.001) increases in reading proficiency as measured by the reading portion of the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test 2.0 (FCAT). This was true for students who previously had below satisfactory performance on the FCAT, as well as those who previously had satisfactory or above satisfactory performance.

“These results suggest that the Reading Plus program is an effective tool for increasing reading proficiency in both lower- and higher-performing students.”

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TITLE:

Reading Plus® Significantly Raises Achievement for Students with Learning Disabilities

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS:

Across all grades, Reading Plus practice by students with Learning Disabilities (LD) was associated with highly significant (p<.001) increases in reading proficiency as measured by the reading portion of the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test 2.0 (FCAT). Reading Plus use also resulted in more than three times as many students with LD advancing from below satisfactory to a satisfactory level or higher on the FCAT.

“These results suggest that the Reading Plus program is an effective tool for increasing reading proficiency in Students with Learning Disabilities.”

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TITLE:

Reading Plus® Significantly Raises Achievement for Students Eligible for Subsidized Lunch.

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS:

Students from families with incomes ranging up to 185 percent of the poverty threshold are eligible for free or reduced price lunch. For this reason, eligibility for subsidized lunch is often used as a proxy measure for family income. Across all grades, Reading Plus practice by students who are eligible for free or reduced price lunch was associated with highly significant (p<.001) increases in reading proficiency as measured by the reading portion of the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test 2.0 (FCAT). In addition, Reading Plus students receiving subsidized lunches were significantly more likely than their higher income peers who did not use Reading Plus to advance from below satisfactory to a satisfactory level or higher on the FCAT.

“These results suggest that the Reading Plus program is an effective tool for developing reading proficiency in students from lower-income families.”

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TITLE:

Reading Plus Significantly Raises Achievement for English Language Learners (ELLs).

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS:

Reading Plus usage by ELL students was associated with highly significant (p<.001) increases in reading proficiency as measured by the reading portion of the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test 2.0 (FCAT). Reading Plus use resulted in larger FCAT scale score gains, higher percentages of students advancing one or more levels on the FCAT, and more students achieving a satisfactory level or higher. Gains among ELL students with lower levels of English proficiency were exceptionally large.

“These results suggest that the Reading Plus program is an effective tool for developing reading proficiency in ELL students.” 

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Title:

The Decline of Comprehension-Based Silent Reading Efficiency in the U.S.: A Comparison of Current Data with Performance in 1960

Summary of Findings:

This national study measured the comprehension-based silent reading efficiency of U.S. students in Grades 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12, and compared the results to those obtained from U.S. students in 1960. The results suggest that, in comparison to 1960, present-day students are less efficient readers and are more reliant on the sub-lexical analysis of text, rather than reading with the automaticity that can only be developed with practice and wide reading.

“The present research adds to an ample body of evidence suggesting that the reading proficiency of students in the U.S. is declining. The majority of our high school graduates lack adequate reading proficiency and have little experience with the sorts of challenging text they will face in postsecondary educational settings.”

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Title:

More Reading Plus® lessons completed = Significantly greater reading proficiency gains
Follow-up study with a matched student sample

Summary of Findings:

Reading Plus usage was associated with highly significant (p<.001) increases in reading proficiency scores as measured by Pearson’s nationally normed Group Reading Assessment Diagnostic Evaluation (GRADE™). Further, significantly larger increases in reading proficiency were associated with increased program use (p=.03) across four groups of students who were closely matched on the basis of their pre-training GRADE scores. Students who completed at least 100 SeeReader lessons (~30 hours) achieved reading proficiency score increases four times as large as those measured in students who completed 40 or fewer lessons (~7 hours).

“The results of this follow-up analysis show that students who were closely matched on the basis of their pre-training reading scores (as measured by the GRADE™) achieved significantly larger reading proficiency increases with greater amounts of Reading Plus practice.”

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Title:

Impact of Reading Plus on Shelby County Schools middle school students’ reading proficiency scores as measured by a norm-referenced diagnostic reading assessment: Initial findings

Summary of Findings:

Students who completed at least 100 Reading Plus lessons (~30 hours) achieved reading proficiency score increases nearly four times as large as those measured in students who completed 20 or fewer lessons (~5 hours). Further, the GRADE standard score gains achieved by the students who completed 100 or more Reading Plus lessons were nearly four times as large as gains measured in studies published by the U.S. Department of Education describing the results of other supplemental literacy programs that involved more than three hours per week over two semesters (Somers, Corrin, Sepanik, et al., 2010).

“The results of this study show a significant impact of Reading Plus practice on the reading proficiency scores as measured using Pearson’s nationally normed Group Reading Assessment Diagnostic Evaluation (GRADE™).”

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Title:

The Relationship Between a Silent Reading Fluency Instructional Protocol on Students’ Reading Comprehension and Achievement in an Urban School Setting

Authors:

Timothy Rasinski, S. Jay Samuels, Elfrieda Hiebert, and Yaacov Petscher

Publication:

Reading Psychology, Vol. 32, No. 1, January 2011, pp. 75-97

Summary:

The study examined a large-scale implementation of Reading Plus to validate the effects as well as the feasibility of deployment of Reading Plus within a wide range of school settings. A total of 16,143 students from grades 4 through 10 in 23 schools in Regions II and III in the Miami-Dade County Public Schools participated in the study.

Findings:

Results indicated that students participating in Reading Plus for a minimum of 40 or more lessons over approximately six months made significantly greater gains on both the criterion-referenced and norm-referenced reading tests that are part of the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test (FCAT) than students who did not participate in the program. Positive results also were demonstrated for various subpopulations often considered at risk for reading difficulties. African-American, Latino-American, special education, and learning disabled students who participated in the Reading Plus intervention demonstrated significantly and substantially greater gains in measures of reading achievement on both the CRT and NRT portions of the FCAT than students not participating in the intervention.

Title:

Evaluation of the Reading Plus 2000 and Visagraph System as a Remedial Program for Academically ‘At Risk’ Sixth and Eighth Grade Students: A Pilot Study

Authors:

Darrel G. Schlange, H. Patel, and Brian Caden

Publication:

Optometry and Vision Science, Vol. 76, poster 11, 1999

Summary:

The study was conducted at Shields Elementary School in Chicago. At-risk students were assigned to receive instruction with an earlier version of Reading Plus. Students received three sessions per week for a total of 40 sessions, in addition to their regular classroom instruction.

Findings:

Results showed that students in the sixth and eighth grades who received training with Reading Plus made significant improvements (p<.001) with a gain of 0.9 and 2.3 levels in their GLE as measured by the Visagraph, respectively. In addition, the sixth and eighth graders had a significant average ITBS gain of 1 year 5 months (p<.001) as compared to the school’s average student gain of 1 year 1 month. Beyond the reading gains, students also improved in visual skills, reducing instances in which the two eyes performed differently in terms of binocular coordination (p<.0005).

Title:

Silent Word Reading Fluency and Temporal Vision Processing; Differences Between Good and Poor Readers

Authors:

Harold A. Solan, John Shelley-Tremblay, Steven M. Larson, and Jana Mounts

Publication:

Journal of Behavioral Optometry, December 2006

Summary:

The study explored the relationship between students’ reading abilities, measures of temporal vision processing, and silent word reading fluency. Thirty-seven 7th grade students were classified as “good” or “poor” readers via the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Comprehension tests.

Findings:

Results lend further support to the premise that eye-movement recordings are important for assessment of reading disabled (RD) students. Dr. Shelley-Tremblay is quoted as saying, “This study demonstrated that the Visagraph was effective in quickly and easily measuring the degree of fluency in silent reading in terms of the number of fixations, regressions, and the reading rates of both good and poor readers. The rate of reading was significantly related to attentional ability and comprehension. For poor readers, in particular, a large number of regressions is a good indicator of a broader array of reading problems.”

TITLE:

M-Cell Deficit and Reading Disability: A Preliminary Study of the Effects of Temporal Vision-Processing Therapy

Authors:

Harold A. Solan, John Shelley-Tremblay, Peter C. Hansen, Michael E. Silverman, Steven M. Larson and Anthony Ficarra

PUBLICATION:

Optometry, Vol. 75, No. 10, October 2004, pp. 640-650

SUMMARY:

The study involved 16 seventh grade students from a New York City school who were defined as moderately disabled readers after being tested on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test.

FINDINGS:

Results showed significant improvement on all post-tests, with the Gates Test (p=0.001) average GE increase to 6.52, and the Coherent Motion Threshold Test (p=0.011) down to 4.98%. The students’ average w.p.m. increased to 160 on the Gray Oral Reading Test (p=0.002) and the students achieved a 11.19 mean scaled score increase on the Woodcock-Johnson Test (p=0.001). This study concludes that through temporal vision therapy, reading disabled students with M-Cell deficit can improve magnocellular processing and reading comprehension skills.

Title:

Effect of Attention Therapy on Reading Comprehension

Authors:

Harold A. Solan, John Shelley-Tremblay, Anthony Ficarra, Michael Silverman, and Steven Larson

Publication:

Journal of Learning Disabilities, Vol. 36, November/December 2003, pp. 556-563

Summary:

The study’s purpose was to determine if visual attention therapy had any influence on improvement in reading comprehension of sixth graders with moderate reading disabilities. Thirty students from New York City schools were divided equally into treatment and control groups.

Findings:

The treatment group made significant gains on both the comprehension (p<.05) (GE 4.1 to GE 5.2) and attention test (p<.01) (95 to113). The control group showed no significant improvement in either comprehension (GE 4.3 to GE 4.4) or attention (94 to 106). This study supported the findings that visual attention therapy can have a beneficial effect on reading comprehension of those with reading disabilities.