Reading Plus

Elementary School Research

TITLE:

The Impact of Reading Plus on Reading Proficiency Growth as Measured by the Smarter Balanced (SBAC) and InSight Assessments: 2015-2016 School Year

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS:

Students who completed at least 80 Reading Plus lessons were more likely to advance from not meeting to meeting the SBAC standard than students who did not engage in Reading Plus. This brief also discusses the strong alignment between the SBAC and InSight assessments.

“Students who engaged in more Reading Plus practice achieved larger gains on both the Smarter Balanced (SBAC) and InSight assessments.”

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TITLE:

Reading Motivation and Reading Success: A Two-Way Street

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS:

This report focuses on two key domains of motivation (reading interest and reading confidence) and how they relate to reading comprehension, efficiency, and overall reading proficiency. Across all grade groups (grades 2-5; 6-8; and 9-12), students who reported higher levels of interest and confidence also demonstrated significantly higher levels of reading comprehension and reading efficiency (p < .001). As well, increases in interest and confidence over the school year were larger in students who increased their reading proficiency to a greater extent.

“Reading motivation and reading success go hand-in-hand.”

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TITLE:

Reading Efficiency: The Gateway to Comprehension & Motivation

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS:

When reading is slow and arduous, comprehension and motivation suffer. Analyses of national data clearly showed that students who read more efficiently also had higher levels of comprehension and motivation. Across all grade groups (grades 2-5; 6-8; and 9-12), students in higher reading rate quartile groups always achieved significantly higher comprehension levels and reported significantly higher levels of reading interest and self-efficacy (p < .001).

“Reading efficiency gains together with improved reading comprehension contribute to significant reading proficiency growth. Reading efficiency is critically associated with continued enthusiasm for reading and perseverance throughout the high school years.”

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TITLE:

The Effect of Reading Plus® on Reading Proficiency Growth: National Results for the 2015-2016 School Year

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS:

Students who completed at least 100 Reading Plus lessons significantly increased their capacity to comprehend progressively more complex texts, developed their capacity to understand higher level vocabulary, and improved their reading efficiency. (p < .001). The results also showed that students developed more confidence and increased their interest in reading.

“Reading Plus practice improves students’ reading proficiency and motivation, which in turn increases the likelihood that they will use reading as a means to expand their knowledge, to be entertained, and to seek inspiration.”

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TITLE:

Reading Plus® Significantly Raises the Reading Achievement of Both Lower- and Higher-Performing Students

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS:

Across all grades, Reading Plus practice was associated with highly significant (p<.001) increases in reading proficiency as measured by the reading portion of the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test 2.0 (FCAT). This was true for students who previously had below satisfactory performance on the FCAT, as well as those who previously had satisfactory or above satisfactory performance.

“These results suggest that the Reading Plus program is an effective tool for increasing reading proficiency in both lower- and higher-performing students.”

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TITLE:

Reading Plus® Significantly Raises Achievement for Students with Learning Disabilities

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS:

Across all grades, Reading Plus practice by students with Learning Disabilities (LD) was associated with highly significant (p<.001) increases in reading proficiency as measured by the reading portion of the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test 2.0 (FCAT). Reading Plus use also resulted in more than three times as many students with LD advancing from below satisfactory to a satisfactory level or higher on the FCAT.

“These results suggest that the Reading Plus program is an effective tool for increasing reading proficiency in Students with Learning Disabilities.”

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TITLE:

Reading Plus® Significantly Raises Achievement for Students Eligible for Subsidized Lunch.

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS:

Students from families with incomes ranging up to 185 percent of the poverty threshold are eligible for free or reduced price lunch. For this reason, eligibility for subsidized lunch is often used as a proxy measure for family income. Across all grades, Reading Plus practice by students who are eligible for free or reduced price lunch was associated with highly significant (p<.001) increases in reading proficiency as measured by the reading portion of the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test 2.0 (FCAT). In addition, Reading Plus students receiving subsidized lunches were significantly more likely than their higher income peers who did not use Reading Plus to advance from below satisfactory to a satisfactory level or higher on the FCAT.

“These results suggest that the Reading Plus program is an effective tool for developing reading proficiency in students from lower-income families.”

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TITLE:

Reading Plus Significantly Raises Achievement for English Language Learners (ELLs).

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS:

Reading Plus usage by ELL students was associated with highly significant (p<.001) increases in reading proficiency as measured by the reading portion of the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test 2.0 (FCAT). Reading Plus use resulted in larger FCAT scale score gains, higher percentages of students advancing one or more levels on the FCAT, and more students achieving a satisfactory level or higher. Gains among ELL students with lower levels of English proficiency were exceptionally large.

“These results suggest that the Reading Plus program is an effective tool for developing reading proficiency in ELL students.” 

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Title:

The Decline of Comprehension-Based Silent Reading Efficiency in the U.S.: A Comparison of Current Data with Performance in 1960

Summary of Findings:

This national study measured the comprehension-based silent reading efficiency of U.S. students in Grades 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12, and compared the results to those obtained from U.S. students in 1960. The results suggest that, in comparison to 1960, present-day students are less efficient readers and are more reliant on the sub-lexical analysis of text, rather than reading with the automaticity that can only be developed with practice and wide reading.

“The present research adds to an ample body of evidence suggesting that the reading proficiency of students in the U.S. is declining. The majority of our high school graduates lack adequate reading proficiency and have little experience with the sorts of challenging text they will face in postsecondary educational settings.”

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Title:

Exploring the value-added of a guided, silent reading intervention: Effects on struggling third-grade students’ reading achievement

Summary of Findings:

Reading Plus demonstrated a statistically significant effect on retained third-grade students’ FCAT achievement at a probability level of < .001. By improving from FCAT level 1 to FCAT level 3 or higher, 78% of the Reading Plus students achieved a passing FCAT level. In contrast, only 32% of the control group students achieved a passing FCAT level, and 45% of the control group students were not able to improve and remained at FCAT level 1. All Reading Plus students advanced at least 1 FCAT level.

Note: This Brief is a summary of the full article that was published in The Journal of Educational Research, Volume 105, Issue 6, September 2012, pp. 404-15

“Seventy-eight percent of the Reading Plus students improved by at least 2 FCAT levels, achieving a passing FCAT level.”

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THE RESEARCH

Dade County Public Schools conducted an independent analysis of interventions used within their district. The analysis examined students in grades 3 through 10 who were at different levels of ability. The analysis was conducted to determine the effectiveness of programs in improving students’ reading and/or math FCAT scores.

THE RESULTS

The results showed that Reading Plus had a significant positive effect for students of all ability levels and at all grade levels. This report was also conducted for the 2010/2011 school year with nearly identical results leading Miami Dade Public Schools to state that Reading Plus was found to have a consistent beneficial impact on the achievement of the students who used the program.

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Full Technical Documentation

Title:

Exploring a guided, silent reading intervention: Effects on struggling third-grade readers’ achievement

Authors:

D. Ray Reutzel, Yaacov Petscher, and Alexandra N. Spichtig

Publication:

The Journal of Educational Research Volume 105, Issue 6, September 2012, pp. 404-15

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of a supplementary, guided, silent reading intervention with 80 struggling third-grade readers who were retained at grade level as a result of poor performance on the reading portion of a criterion referenced state assessment. The students were distributed in 11 elementary schools in a large, urban school district in the state of Florida. A matched, quasi-experimental design was constructed using propensity scores for this study.

Students in the guided, silent reading intervention, Reading Plus, evidenced higher, statistically significant mean scores on the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) criterion assessment measure of reading at posttest. The effect size, favoring the guided, silent reading intervention group was large, one full standard deviation, when comparing the two comparison groups’ mean posttest scores. As such, this study indicates a large advantage for providing struggling third-grade readers guided silent reading fluency practice in a computer-based practice environment.

Title:

The Effect of the Reading Plus Program on Reading Skills in Second Graders

Authors

John Shelley-Tremblay and Joshua Eyer

Publication:

Journal of Behavioral Optometry, Vol. 20, No. 3, 2009

Summary

The study assessed gains in reading skills and oculomotor efficiency in second graders in a public school in Woodland, TX.

Findings

Results demonstrated that Reading Plus produced significantly larger gains than randomly assigned controls in comprehension and word knowledge in normally achieving second graders. These results suggest that, in addition to the findings of Solan and collaborators using poor readers, normal and above-average readers in a normal classroom setting can benefit significantly from the addition of Reading Plus to their school curriculum. Analysis of the Visagraph data demonstrated that measures of ocular efficiency were significant predictors of changes in reading skills.

Title:

Evaluation of an Eye-Movement Recording Technique in a Population of Autistic Children

Authors:

Darrel G. Schlange, Janice E. Scharre, and Brian Caden

Publication:

Optometry and Vision Science, 74, poster 27, 1997

Summary:

The purpose of this study was to evaluate Taylor Associate’s Visagraph II for recording fixations and saccades in autistic children.

Findings:

The study suggested that this technique has clinical value for evaluating eye-movement skills in a population of autistic children. Guidelines are provided to assist the clinician in interpreting the results and integrating them with data from other members of the interdisciplinary team.

Title:

The Relationship Between a Silent Reading Fluency Instructional Protocol on Students’ Reading Comprehension and Achievement in an Urban School Setting

Authors:

Timothy Rasinski, S. Jay Samuels, Elfrieda Hiebert, and Yaacov Petscher

Publication:

Reading Psychology, Vol. 32, No. 1, January 2011, pp. 75-97

Summary:

The study examined a large-scale implementation of Reading Plus to validate the effects as well as the feasibility of deployment of Reading Plus within a wide range of school settings. A total of 16,143 students from grades 4 through 10 in 23 schools in Regions II and III in the Miami-Dade County Public Schools participated in the study.

Findings:

Results indicated that students participating in Reading Plus for a minimum of 40 or more lessons over approximately six months made significantly greater gains on both the criterion-referenced and norm-referenced reading tests that are part of the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test (FCAT) than students who did not participate in the program. Positive results also were demonstrated for various subpopulations often considered at risk for reading difficulties. African-American, Latino-American, special education, and learning disabled students who participated in the Reading Plus intervention demonstrated significantly and substantially greater gains in measures of reading achievement on both the CRT and NRT portions of the FCAT than students not participating in the intervention.