Reading Plus

Eye Movement

Reading Plus Presentations at the 19th European Conference on Eye Movement, ECEM 2017

Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Germany

TITLE:

The Reliability of Reading Efficiency Measures Obtained by Classroom Educators Using a Low-Cost Eye Movement Recording System.

TITLE:

Effects of Scaffolded Silent Reading Practice on the Reading Related Eye Movements of US Students in Grades 4 and 5.

TITLE:

The Correlation between Eye Movement Data and Three Commonly Used Academic Reading Assessments.

TITLE:

Relationship Between Students’ Stages of Orthographic Knowledge and Reading Efficiency.

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Title:

The Decline of Comprehension-Based Silent Reading Efficiency in the U.S.: A Comparison of Current Data with Performance in 1960

Summary of Findings:

This national study measured the comprehension-based silent reading efficiency of U.S. students in Grades 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12, and compared the results to those obtained from U.S. students in 1960. The results suggest that, in comparison to 1960, present-day students are less efficient readers and are more reliant on the sub-lexical analysis of text, rather than reading with the automaticity that can only be developed with practice and wide reading.

“The present research adds to an ample body of evidence suggesting that the reading proficiency of students in the U.S. is declining. The majority of our high school graduates lack adequate reading proficiency and have little experience with the sorts of challenging text they will face in postsecondary educational settings.”

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Title:

The Effect of the Reading Plus Program on Reading Skills in Second Graders

Authors

John Shelley-Tremblay and Joshua Eyer

Publication:

Journal of Behavioral Optometry, Vol. 20, No. 3, 2009

Summary

The study assessed gains in reading skills and oculomotor efficiency in second graders in a public school in Woodland, TX.

Findings

Results demonstrated that Reading Plus produced significantly larger gains than randomly assigned controls in comprehension and word knowledge in normally achieving second graders. These results suggest that, in addition to the findings of Solan and collaborators using poor readers, normal and above-average readers in a normal classroom setting can benefit significantly from the addition of Reading Plus to their school curriculum. Analysis of the Visagraph data demonstrated that measures of ocular efficiency were significant predictors of changes in reading skills.

Title:

Evaluation of an Eye-Movement Recording Technique in a Population of Autistic Children

Authors:

Darrel G. Schlange, Janice E. Scharre, and Brian Caden

Publication:

Optometry and Vision Science, 74, poster 27, 1997

Summary:

The purpose of this study was to evaluate Taylor Associate’s Visagraph II for recording fixations and saccades in autistic children.

Findings:

The study suggested that this technique has clinical value for evaluating eye-movement skills in a population of autistic children. Guidelines are provided to assist the clinician in interpreting the results and integrating them with data from other members of the interdisciplinary team.

Title:

Evaluation of the Reading Plus 2000 and Visagraph System as a Remedial Program for Academically ‘At Risk’ Sixth and Eighth Grade Students: A Pilot Study

Authors:

Darrel G. Schlange, H. Patel, and Brian Caden

Publication:

Optometry and Vision Science, Vol. 76, poster 11, 1999

Summary:

The study was conducted at Shields Elementary School in Chicago. At-risk students were assigned to receive instruction with an earlier version of Reading Plus. Students received three sessions per week for a total of 40 sessions, in addition to their regular classroom instruction.

Findings:

Results showed that students in the sixth and eighth grades who received training with Reading Plus made significant improvements (p<.001) with a gain of 0.9 and 2.3 levels in their GLE as measured by the Visagraph, respectively. In addition, the sixth and eighth graders had a significant average ITBS gain of 1 year 5 months (p<.001) as compared to the school’s average student gain of 1 year 1 month. Beyond the reading gains, students also improved in visual skills, reducing instances in which the two eyes performed differently in terms of binocular coordination (p<.0005).

Title:

Silent Word Reading Fluency and Temporal Vision Processing; Differences Between Good and Poor Readers

Authors:

Harold A. Solan, John Shelley-Tremblay, Steven M. Larson, and Jana Mounts

Publication:

Journal of Behavioral Optometry, December 2006

Summary:

The study explored the relationship between students’ reading abilities, measures of temporal vision processing, and silent word reading fluency. Thirty-seven 7th grade students were classified as “good” or “poor” readers via the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Comprehension tests.

Findings:

Results lend further support to the premise that eye-movement recordings are important for assessment of reading disabled (RD) students. Dr. Shelley-Tremblay is quoted as saying, “This study demonstrated that the Visagraph was effective in quickly and easily measuring the degree of fluency in silent reading in terms of the number of fixations, regressions, and the reading rates of both good and poor readers. The rate of reading was significantly related to attentional ability and comprehension. For poor readers, in particular, a large number of regressions is a good indicator of a broader array of reading problems.”

TITLE:

M-Cell Deficit and Reading Disability: A Preliminary Study of the Effects of Temporal Vision-Processing Therapy

Authors:

Harold A. Solan, John Shelley-Tremblay, Peter C. Hansen, Michael E. Silverman, Steven M. Larson and Anthony Ficarra

PUBLICATION:

Optometry, Vol. 75, No. 10, October 2004, pp. 640-650

SUMMARY:

The study involved 16 seventh grade students from a New York City school who were defined as moderately disabled readers after being tested on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test.

FINDINGS:

Results showed significant improvement on all post-tests, with the Gates Test (p=0.001) average GE increase to 6.52, and the Coherent Motion Threshold Test (p=0.011) down to 4.98%. The students’ average w.p.m. increased to 160 on the Gray Oral Reading Test (p=0.002) and the students achieved a 11.19 mean scaled score increase on the Woodcock-Johnson Test (p=0.001). This study concludes that through temporal vision therapy, reading disabled students with M-Cell deficit can improve magnocellular processing and reading comprehension skills.

Title:

Effect of Attention Therapy on Reading Comprehension

Authors:

Harold A. Solan, John Shelley-Tremblay, Anthony Ficarra, Michael Silverman, and Steven Larson

Publication:

Journal of Learning Disabilities, Vol. 36, November/December 2003, pp. 556-563

Summary:

The study’s purpose was to determine if visual attention therapy had any influence on improvement in reading comprehension of sixth graders with moderate reading disabilities. Thirty students from New York City schools were divided equally into treatment and control groups.

Findings:

The treatment group made significant gains on both the comprehension (p<.05) (GE 4.1 to GE 5.2) and attention test (p<.01) (95 to113). The control group showed no significant improvement in either comprehension (GE 4.3 to GE 4.4) or attention (94 to 106). This study supported the findings that visual attention therapy can have a beneficial effect on reading comprehension of those with reading disabilities.

Title:

National Research Project: Northeastern Junior College Comparison Study 2006-2007

Author:

Victoria Tarbell

Publication:

White Paper (Unpublished)

Summary:

The study involved college students enrolled in remedial reading courses.

Findings:

Findings: Students who continued for a second semester showed much greater gains on average than did those who participated in Reading Plus for one semester. A one semester gain was also seen in the 25 students who were both pre- and post-tested using the Visagraph Eye-Movement Recording System. The students improved their reading efficiency by an average of 4.6 Grade Level Equivalents in a single semester. The expected improvement over a year without specific training is 1.0 GLE. Within the Reading Plus program, the students improved their Part B, or guided slot, rate by an average of 92% while maintaining an average comprehension of 70% over an average of 43 lessons.

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Title:

Effectiveness of an On-Line Computerized Eye-Movement Training Program to Improve Oculomotor Control in Adult Readers: A Pilot Study

Authors:

Kim Tran, Cui Yu, Tomohito Okumura, and Hannu R.V. Laukkanen

Publication:

Journal of Behavioral Optometry, Vol. 15, No. 5, 2004, pp.115-121

Summary:

The study was conducted on eight adults between the ages of 24 and 35. Five subjects in the treatment group completed ten weeks of Reading Plus and the other three were placed in a control group with no intervention. Both groups were pre- and post-tested with the Visagraph for fixations, regressions, span of recognition, duration of fixations, reading rate with comprehension, and reading comprehension.

Findings:

After post-testing on the Visagraph, results indicated greater improvement on all of the measurable categories listed above for the treatment group, while the control group showed very little change.

Link to Article:

http://commons.pacificu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1003&context=coofac